What Are The Causes Of Kidney Disease In Children?

Kidney disease can impact children in a variety of ways, ranging from manageable problems with no long-term repercussions to potentially fatal conditions

Kidney failure is a temporary or permanent kidney injury that leads to a lack of normal kidney function. Kidney failure is classified into two types: acute and chronic. Acute kidney failure has a sudden onset and may be reversible.

Chronic kidney failure develops slowly over at least three months and has the potential to lead to permanent kidney failure. Acute and chronic illnesses have diverse causes, symptoms, treatments, and results.

What is the impact of kidney disease on children?

Kidney disease can impact children in a variety of ways, ranging from manageable problems with no long-term repercussions to potentially fatal conditions. Acute kidney disease appears unexpectedly, lasts for a short period of time, and can be serious with long-term implications.

In Acute Kidney disease, Symptoms can be

·         Decreased or Absent Urine.

·         Blood in Urine.

·         Swelling Of feet or eyes.

·         Increased Blood Pressure.

·         Symptoms of the cause such as Fever, Rash, Dehydration, Low Hemoglobin, Abdominal Pain.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) does not improve with treatment and worsens over time. When treated with a kidney transplant or blood-filtering procedures known as dialysis, CKD eventually leads to renal failure, which is end-stage kidney disease or ESRD.

Children who have CKD or kidney failure face these Symptoms - Chronic Symptoms such as Poor Appetite, Vomiting, Headache, Stunted growth, High Blood pressure and these can lead to the following.

- A poor self-image relationship issue

- Issues with behaviour and learning

- Difficulty concentrating

- Delayed development of language skills

- Delayed development of motor skills

Conditions that might cause acute or chronic renal failure include:

Acute renal failure causes

For a time, blood flow to the kidneys can be reduced. This can happen as a result of blood loss, surgery, or shock such as Septic Shock.

An obstruction in the urinary tract.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Kidney failure arises as a result of obstruction to the small functioning structures and veins inside the kidney.

Ingestion of some drugs that may cause kidney damage.

Acute glomerulonephritis is a form of kidney illness that affects the glomeruli. The glomeruli become inflamed during glomerulonephritis, impairing the kidney's ability to filter urine.

Any disease, such as cardiac arrest, may limit the delivery of oxygen and blood to the kidneys.

Chronic renal failure causes

·         Birth defects – Renal agenesis, Renal dysplasia, Ectopic Kidney

A protracted obstruction or blockage of the urinary tract causing Reflex.

The syndrome of Alport: Deafness, gradual kidney failure, and eye impairments are all symptoms of this genetic illness.

Nephrotic syndrome is a condition caused by a variety of factors. Protein in the urine, low protein in the blood, elevated cholesterol levels, and tissue edema are all symptoms of nephrotic syndrome.

Polycystic kidney disease is a hereditary condition that forms with many cysts in the kidneys that are filled with fluid.

Cystinosis: A hereditary condition in which the amino acid cystine (a common protein-building ingredient) accumulates within lysosomes, which are cellular structures in the kidney.

Recurrent UTI ( Urinary tract infection )

Treatment of kidney illness in children

The treatment for kidney disease in children is determined by the underlying cause of the condition. A pediatric nephrologist—a clinician who specializes in treating kidney illnesses and renal failure in children should be referred to treat a child.

· Diuretics to increase urine output.

· Control of blood pressure by ACE inhibitor or ARBS

·  Correction of Sodium, Potassium and acidosis in body by IV or oral medication

·  Correction of Anaemia and growth failure by Nutritional and diet modification

· Management of the Underlying cause

o   Treating the shock

o   Preventing recurrent UTI

o   By Antibiotics in PSGN ( Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis )

o    Using Steroids and Immunomodulators in Nephrotic syndrome

o   Surgical correction for reflux or urinary stones

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